Enriched through developed communication Technology, the victorious liberal economic model require political Coverage.
But because cultures are not united about the Nature of Liberalism, the different liberal positions led to various political Streams.
Free Decision is a social relation. Its status depends on economic Circumstances. The Nature of the free economic Decision is stipulated by economic Conditions, and for the last are not the same by every Decision Maker, and changeable also, Views and understanding of Liberalism are relative, and the volume of the Freedom in the political Choice is qualitatively and quantitatively variable also.
Psychologically; The "Ego" relation to the "He" and to the "super Ego" is determined by economic states. i.e. in order to be closed or better modified, the Theory of Freud lack to include Relativity in its Antecedence.
In addition to the fluctuation in the Space of Freedom ( which is not supposed to exceed the human-Nature Relation),individuals remain also to a great extent influenced by inherited authoritarian Tradition and education Systems.
After the world Wars , two main liberal Streams have branched;
a. A negative Liberalism with a " Laissez-faire " equation
b. A Positive Liberalism, with a progressive social concept. It views Solidarity and liberal Positivism as the method of securing Liberalism. Human is the goal of the Production and not the other Way around.
In both (a and b) there are left , middle and right Positions.
The Development of the classical Liberalism(negative social Position) has its intellectual Basis in the Philosophy of Enlightenment. Some of the Possible Advocates are;
Nicolo Machiavelli 1469-1527(
Bertle Ohlin 1979 (
a. Parties that cantain the Term in their Slogan Syntax are:
1. Party of Freedom and Progress (
2. Liberal Party of
3. Party liberal de Quebec
4. liberal party of
5.Liberales Forum (
6. Freedom Party (
7. liberal party of
8.Party of liberal front & Liberal Party (
9. Movement for rights and Freedoms (
10. Aruban liberal Organization
11. Colombian Liberal Party
12. Libertarian Movement Party (Costarica)
13. Liberal party (
14. Cuban Liberal Movement
15. Liberal Union (
16. venstre Danmarks liberal part
17.liberal party of the
18. Ecuadorian Radical Liberal Party
19. The liberal party of
20.The Liberals (
21. The Liberal Party of Gibralta
22. The Liberal Party of
23. The Liberal Party (
24. The national liberal party of
25. The Liberal and Centre
26. The Liberal Party of
27. Liberal Constitutional Party (
28. National Liberal Party (
29. Authentic Radical Liberal Part (
30.Liberal party ( Philippine)
31. Freedom Union (
32. The national Liberal Party (
35. People’s Party-Liberal (
36. Liberal Party of
38. The Liberal Party (
39. The Liberal Party (
40. The liberal democratic party of
41. The free democratic party (
42. The liberal party of
43.The liberal party of
44.The liberal democratic party of
45. The liberal democratic party (
46. The liberal democratic party of
47. The liberal democracy of
48. The free democratic party of
Other Parties with liberal Content but different Names are:
1. unity for human rights party (
2. Recreate for Growth (Argentine)
3. Republican party of
4. United Civic Party of
5. Reformist Movement
6. Rebirth Party of
7.The Party of
8. Pak Sam Rainsy (
9. Rally of the Republicans (cote des voires)
10. . Czech Liberal reform party of
11. Italian Republican Party
12. Estonian Reform Party
13. Latvian Way
15. Union of right Forces (
16. Malaysian People’s Movement Party
17. Popular Movement (
18. The statute Union Party of Morocco
19. Union for
20. Popular Action (
23. Civic United Front (
24. The Republican Party (
26.United Party of national Development (
27. Democratic party of Luxemburg
29. national democratic Congress of Grenada
30. The feeling of community party
32. United Democrats (
33. The democratic Alliance (RSA)
34. The Millennium democratic party (
35. The Senegalese democratic party
36. The democratic Alternative 91(
Non-Parliamentarian liberal parties:
1. Liberal Forum (
2. liberal Party of
3. Libertarian Party of
4. Liberal Party (Chilly)
5. . Czech Path of change
6 . Czech Party for an open Society
7. Liberal Party of the
8. Movement Forwards
9. Pôle des Libertés (France)
10.The People Party of Norway
11.The Liberals (Greece)
12. The Liberals in Haiti
13. Swatantra Bharat (
14. The Federation of the Italian Liberals (
15. The Liberal party (
16.Liberal party (
17.The Liberal party of Cosova
18. Liberal Coalition (
19. Liberal Party of
20.The Liberal Party of
21.The Liberal party of
22. Liberal Party of
23.The liberal force in
25. The liberal party of
26.The liberal democratic party of
27.The liberal democratic party of
28.The liberal democratic Party of
29. The liberal democratic Party (
30. The liberal democratic Party of
31. The liberal democratic Party (
There are about 100 liberal movements across the world. Statistics says; that liberal Streams make out the absolute Majority of the contemporary world population.
What was forbidden or censored in the past became supported since the collapse of The Soviet Empire 1989.
In his (Union day 2005)Speech to the Nation Mr. G. W. Bush announced: Our Freedom depends on the Success of the Freedom in the World.
Liberal parties are (generally) Tax free Parties with a Hand Out Political Concept(Negativism). Economic Tax and Restrictions used by left Capitalists are usually condemned by the classical liberals. John Locke (The spiritual intellect of the US Revolution) affirmed: Individual freedom can not be violated by democratic Decisions. Neither Kings nor Society may jump over this Principle (Lock wrote in his political Studies).
Globalization of positive Liberalism doesn't abate the Differences over the nature of the market, because the last is not an identical practice Field.
Liberalism is based on several philosophical Fundaments, and it is useful to mention some of its political arguments:
1. The liberal decision is democratically natured. But in order to prevent the majority from violating the basic rights of Minorities or Individuals, a human Rights Concept is proposed to achieve a liberal democratic Statute. Historically;
The US- and other European left Democrats didn't do much to prevent Slavery or force abolition. But republicans and other liberals did better in establishing a liberal government, ending the "Laissez-faire Slavery" tolerated by the left.(Read the Story of Abraham
"Every Man is a King' is a Slogan that was declared by an US Senator to prevent the democracy from seizing the individual liberal Rights, but he was killed little later by democratic Racists.
Two Basis have been philosophically adopted to organize the international Relation;
A. A hand Out politics based on the Sovereignty of the States and Governments(considering the interior affairs of the States as being part of State Rights. Hitherto no intervention in the interior affaires is acceptable. This Model goes back to the German intellectual Grotius)
b. A Kantian model allowing Intervention in the interior Affaires of the States for the sake of individual Freedom being the Basis of the general social freedom. This has become normatively very popular since the Fall of the Russian Communism. Kofi Annan and his Successor Ban ki Moon both declared; that sovereignty is no more Immunity for those who violate the rights and commit Crimes against Humanity. Long before such statements have been made, the
The Administration justifies the interventions through Facts like; Rights Injuries, Violence and Crimes committed by the rulers. It might not be the Goal of the Administration to merely restore the Rights of other States Individuals, but although the Basis for Interventions remains (in according to the liberal Principles and human rights Declaration) legitimate.
2. Other Decision related Element is; The Theory of Multiplity, which says;
Values are relative and logically hedonistic. What counts is what the subject (Individual) sees and not what the others want. Despite the fact that john Locke has been considered the main founder of the modern Empiricism, he didn't deny the role of the subject in evaluation and reduced the Genesis of values to the taste. This is of course no denial of the Experience role in developing the sensitivity of the Taste.
That is to say ; No scientific Justification of violating the individual rights and Values is derivable.
There is a Consensus about the Fact that the Source of all possible Values is the subject( Independent from idealistically met or imposed Decisions)as being no Object of a majority rule.
The Position of the Positive Liberals:
This led Capitalism during the Cold War Era, but Fluctuatingly.
The Main Father and Founder was the Greek Socrates (who was the first to preach Democracy).
The Democrats give the majority the right to restrict individual rights for social reasons. They claim that the intervention be undertaken to serve the general Health of the entire Society. What is Critical in such a policy is the Fact; that healthy individuals pay for the Misery of bottom Individuals in the social democratic Society. For that reason, a grotiusian Concept would suit Democracy better than other renaissance Arguments, and it has been practically the Basis of democratic foreign policy, for it gives the States the right of exercising unlimited Rule over the Citizens, and hence Protectionism becomes justified. The Restriction of hand out Policy on economic Level be mirrored politically through tolerating Restriction of individual Freedom for political or security reasons.
I still remember that event when I was imprisoned by the Austrian Police in 1998.
They explained the Cause of Arrest through the following Protocol; For the general Interest is superior to the private Interest, and for the social and general Interest enjoy Priority, the State see in the arrest of the mentioned Person (me) a fulfillment of the general Interest of the Society(This reminded me of the Holocaust and the Nazis Genocide committed for the Sake of the general Reich Interest.).
Democratic systems consider individual freedom and rights as the basis of general public interest. The general public interest consists of individuals interests. So protecting every individual interest corresponds to the protection of the society. The free or liberal democratic societies are based on the protection of individual rights, and rights are the core of the democratic social contract. This concept seems to be strange in the eyes of Nazis, terrorists or theocratic systems
The New Democratic Era has (luckily)not been very Promising, since so many Voters have immigrated to other Parties. So the Parties had to make reforms in order to avoid the Decline. The US Democrats made a lot of reforms under Clinton- Algore Administration, giving up some of their protectionism and nationalism.
They adopted some republicanism in their Market Policy, which made them lose some of their Identity also. They became very closed to the Center, but keep carrying their previous vacuumed Name. Since the US Invasion of Iraq, the Democrats have been trying to steal the republican policy, making profit of the Bush Occupation Dilemma. Their congressional Stance on Turkish Genocides against the Armenians is purely and traditionally Republican.
In Fact, Left and right are a matter of economic and Security Circumstances. When we consider Liberalism as an Attempt of achieving the best possible freedom into a social Framework, we imply (r) relativity in the equation of Liberalism. If Liberty is a matter of Individual- Society Relation, then the economic and political State of the society is very decisive for the Possibility of achieving best possible Freedom. But what differ main Liberalism from the left Liberalism is the fact; that the first implement a minimum and necessary Quantum of security Considerations.
For example ; the Republicans created some Additional restricting Security and Tax Procedures because of having become Goal of launched Terror Attacks, which they wouldn't have done in a state of Peace. This made them little closed to the Democrats in some of their State of Peace Gestures, and gave the democrats the Chance to accuse them of having broken the Norms. Many of them describe G. W. Bush as a Liar. The Popularity of the Liberalism has increased by the End of the cold War. Its natural Ambient is a Peaceful Society and World. This made the WTO pay a great attention to ending Disputes in the Areas of Investment, and it has been a republican Effort since the nineties. Wars require increase of Tax and a strength of governmental role. It gives Politics Priority, while Peace is an economic Priority mostly.
Possible intellectual basis for the Democracy and social democracy:
1. Aristotle (322-384 BC)
2. David Hume (1776-1776)
3. Emanuel Josef Siyes (1748-1836)
4. Oliver wendel holmes (1841-1836)
5.Betrand Russell (1872-1970)
6. Arthur Schlesinger (1917)
7.John Kenneth Galbrith (1908)
8.Woodrow Wilson (1856-1924)
9.Immanuel kant (1724-1804)
11.Karl Hermann Flach (1924-1973)
12.Dirk Vorhofstadt (1955)
The Democratic and social democratic parties across the world:
1. the socialist party of Argentine
2. Australian labor party
3. The socialist Party of Austria (SPÖ)
4.The alternative socialist party of
5.The social democratic party of
6. The new democratic party of
7. the Czech democratic Party
8. the social Democrats of
9. The Social democratic Party (
10. The Social democratic Party (
11. The socialist party of
12. The Social democratic Party (
13. Panhellenic Socialist Movement (
14. The social democratic
15. Indian national congressionals
16. the Indonesian democratic Party
17. Irish labor Party
18.The left democrats (
19. The labor Party of Israel
20. The democratic Party of
21. Luxembourg Socialist Worker's party
22.The revolutionary People Party of Mongolia
23. The Labor Party of
25.The Labor party of
26. The Labor party of
27.The social democratic party of
28. African national Congress
29. The socialist labor party of
30. the social democratic labor party of
31. Social Democratic Party of
32. Republican Peoples’ Party (
33. Labor Party (
a. progressive Unionist Party
b. Social and Democratic Labor Party
35. Scottish National Party
36. US Democrats
As mentioned before; In order to have a Say about Today globalization, the Democrats had to give up many of their Ideas, Norms and Lines, as a possible way of responding to contemporary Demands. It has been a great Challenge for them to give up the Idea of nationalism, their local social priorities and many other progressive program points. At this point we may speak of a Party or cultural evolution in a Schurzian sense.
The first Democrats emerged from the ruins of the dead US Federalists, and the early party has burdened the Society with its Taxes Policy (1798). The Social Democracy of Europe had diverged from the main socialist Movement, and grew from the Dispute between right and left Marxism. After the second World War, the social Democrats declared (In the famous Godesburg Conference ) the End for Marxisistic Classes Struggle Theory. So they Descended from Socialism to ascend the left capitalism, and today seem not to be far away from the main liberal Stream. It cause a great fear among them of being dissolved in the classical Liberalism losing their original Identity.
In the last decades, the United Nations has been a political Battle Field between Republicans and social Democrats. The Liberals want to reform the Organization and develop its governmental Mechanism, while the classical democrats catch at the past Tradition demanding an Increase of Payments for the Institutions in order to keep their Functions in tact.
The Republicans and other Liberals Succeeded in making the UN a real threat for Dictators and War Criminals. But want much more to be done on secretarial and other institutional Levels.
In Fact, the United Nations is seen in many countries (including the Arabic World) as a mere Mufti or Church pastor issuing Statements and Appeals ,but no body is forced to listen to.
The historical Struggle between left and right led to what we call today Neoliberalism. The last comprise the left macroeconomics and the right Hand Out policy, added to a supportive international governmental Institutional Structure.
On Security Level, the 13 Agreements on combating Terrorism have become an obligatory Security System (through The security Council resolution 1373).
Since the the End of the cold War, political Globalization has expanded to comprise eastern Europe and some oither asian and even african Countries. In the arabic World some Reforms have been made, and political Changes happened in even primitive Countries like Mauritania, Ghana, Libya etc ( Globalization of political Rights and liberal Institutions is the way of Holding liberal Capitalism in Tact , and securing the World Market ). But Force was used in some Countries like
(From my Book on Globalization)
Ahmad Hussein Annan
The Following human rights Agreements might be helpful in studying the horizon of the international involvement in the Neo Era of aimed world political System.
Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of GenocideInternational Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial DiscriminationInternational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsInternational Covenant on Civil and Political RightsOptional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political RightsConvention on the non-applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanityInternational Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of ApartheidConvention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against WomenAmendment to article 20, paragraph 1 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against WomenOptional Protocol to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against WomenConvention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or PunishmentAmendments to articles 17 (7) and 18 (5) of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or PunishmentOptional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or PunishmentInternational Convention against Apartheid in SportsConvention on the Rights of the ChildAmendment to article 43 (2) of the Convention on the Rights of the ChildOptional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the involvement of children in armed conflictOptional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornographySecond Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penaltyInternational Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their FamiliesAgreement establishing the Fund for the Development of the Indigenous Peoples of Latin America and the CaribbeanConvention on the Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesOptional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesInternational Convention for the Protection of All Persons from Enforced Disappearance Human Rights
For latest on Globalization of Democracy and Rights try the Links below
Waving Public Tendencies have been the Characteristics of the 2008 Elections World Wide.
The increase of Popularity on Behalf of right and middle liberal Streams (since the End of the Cold War), turned over on some Levels.
In Italy, a crushing defeat the Berlusconi Coalition had in 2005 ( The Year of the Iraq War).
In Spain (March 2008), the socialist led Zapatero to a great Victory
(due to his War Opposition. Exactly same thing happened to Berlusconi).
In the French Elections 2002, many Voters inserted their Eggs in far right bin. But in
local Elections 2008: as briefed by the VOA TV:
Preliminary results showed
But In Canada, where the Iraq War seems not to have been influential upon the Voters due to a less Participation or Involvement, the Indicator for the Conservative is going up. The following table show the situation on the Canadian Struggle Field:
Canadian Provincial elections
Date of most
Newfoundland & Labrador
Whereby the New Democrats have branched from the left Wing.
In the United States (the Champion of Liberalism and Republicanism), the left Wings have been doing better in the latest Congressional Elections, and even in the contemporarily running presidential Elections. But, it is important to know; that the US Democrats have changed since Clinton/Algore, and became quite more Liberal than before. They have adopted some unprogressive Policies, and turned their back to their Spiritual Father "the Gay John Maynard Keynes" in some of their Lines. How it looks like since the Iraq War? The running Elections will decide. The promises made by Obama refer mostly to a welfare State (based on a left Euro Vision). But we don't know yet, whether the War in
29 Septemebr 2008
The far right Austrian liberals (The Freedom Party and the Alliance for the Future of Austria) have floated dramatically in the latest general Elections. They gained 29% in the primary Elections on Monday. The spiritual Father of both Parties Joerg Haider had been attending economic Training Courses in the United States. So "der Junge" or the Guy seems to be pro American (economically at least). The Name "Freedom Party" sounds good, but it is doubtful whether the Name reflects the real Party Programs. Whenever Liberalism flows into Austria (the Country that had been known in the past as the hardest Barrier on the Way to Liberalization), produce a very different Smell. Anyway; the Liberals and Conservatives would celebrate the latest Development. The Austrian liberal Literature is rich, and the Austrian School of economics had been welcome in the United States, but never has been well honored at Home.
The CIA has announced the Transportation of 14 War on Terror detainees to Jordanian Prisons to be systematically investigated there,where through the human rights Watchdogs reported Torture and inhuman Treatment
The classical Liberal concept of Globalization dressed in the so called Neoliberalism or modern Republicanism has encountered some troubles World Wide. The Global War on Terror forced Republicans to reduce the Volume of Individual Liberty being mortgaged by the Volume of security (as all political Philosophers know), which gave the methodic Opposition (Leftists and Democrats or social democrats) the Chance to ascend strongly. In fact; were the US Democrats or any other European social Democrats in the White House 2003, they would have done same and took strong actions against international Terrorism. Democrats came at the End, after the Mission almost was accomplished to speak of US Values (which are originally a republican Play).
Even under Bush, Torture (Water boarding and abusive detaining in Guantanamo and Abu Ghuraib )was almost over in 2007/2008. On the other Hand Bush is not a perfect Man, and is factually not the Republican or liberal Doctrines. He is a Leader, who has (like all other Liberals ) to be relative to Time and Space. No one can speak of Values , being Space-Time Invariant or independent.
The global War on Terror, added to the recession threatening Europe and the World, kicked us back to the capitalistic Dialect of 1929 Stagnation. Protectionism seems to be the Weapon when Free Markets don’t satisfy the Needs. The World has profited a lot from American Openness in last two decades, but every attempt to globalize a free World was financed by few Countries that didn’t get enough Compensation in exchange to their Anti- Barriers Policy. So America will have to narrow the doors in the coming years. In his Speech before the Congress , Obama focused on three main Goals : Education, Health Care and Energy (a typical left Line). The black JK. Can’t solve the dispute between the Call for fighting Protectionism, and the protective Recovery Plan which would stop the Jobs oversee. The black Kennedy stand before difficult Choices. The Reforms brought by Democrats in the Nineties have to be run differently. Even Liberals would confront the new Challenges in an untypical Way. So Liberalism in international Politics is relative to the World economic Developments. Even McCain agrees to many Obamian actions. He was applauding when Obama Spoke for the first Time before the Congress explaining the new Challenges. As we perceive the little and temporary protectionism as a necessary provisional Evil, democrats see it as a Way of Life that should last. They couple it with nationalism and Nationalization. A reactionary Politics being called progressive. In their relation to the World, they prefer ad Champion less Care about Rights, but do make Studies and release Reports every Year, things we hope that Obama will change in the new Era of a democratic Administration trying to implement some republicanism in order to survive.
By Ahmad Hussein Annan